The Late Period: 712-332 BC

   In 728 BC, after three hundred years of political chaos, Egypt was invaded by its sister civilization to the south, Nubia. The Nubians had built a civilization on the model of the Egyptians and had maintained Egyptian values and culture with a high degree of conservatism. Under the command of Piankhy, the Nubians rushed northwards and conquered Egypt. The Nubians wanted to return Egypt to traditional Egyptian ways and Egyptian religious practices. Many Egyptian traditions that had died out were restored by the Nubian conquerors. But the Nubian renaissance lasted for only the blink of an eye, for they wilted under the ferocity of the Assyrians and their king Ashurbanipal.   Ashurbanipal placed another Egyptian on the throne of the Two Lands and so established the Twenty-sixth Dynasty. It took a couple generations to bring peace once again to Egypt, but the country would never accede to its former power and influence. Soon, the empire of the Babylonians fell to the Persians, and Egypt came under the control of Persia. The Egyptians writhed and suffered under Persian control so much so that in 332 BC they welcomed the Greek conqueror of Persia, Alexander the Great, into their country as their great liberator. But Egypt was to become a Greek kingdom under a series of Greek kings. After 332, no Egyptian would be king of Egypt until the nineteenth century AD.


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Ptolemaic and Roman Egypt: 332 BC-395 AD


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1996, Richard Hooker
Updated 9-27-97